The global digital advertising industry is estimated to be $600 billion and growing. While Facebook and other social media sites are popular for advertising, much of the campaign spend dedicated to the internet is distributed across millions of websites and apps, and there’s little oversight and moderation from the adtech companies that monetize them. As advertisers handed off day-to-day operations to a bewilderingly complex digital advertising supply chain, companies often don’t know where their ads are ending up — including on sites that spew disinformation and hate-speech. This represents an acute reputational risk at a time when consumers are increasingly making buying decisions based on personal values and brand associations. Companies need to take three steps: check your ad campaigns, avoid brand safety technology, and demand cash refunds.