War by non-military means: Understanding Russian information warfare

Franke, Ulrik

This report is first and foremost a review of Russian official documents and
Russian literature on military theory with regard to information warfare. It also
offers a few case studies, to shed light on how the theory is applied in practice.
One conclusion is that information warfare is not considered to be just a matter
for the Armed Forces, but rather a strategic matter that requires the coordination
of many government agencies. Another conclusion is that information warfare,
according to doctrine and theory, is conducted continuously in peacetime and
wartime alike. Information warfare is also highly politicised, and the Russian
intellectuals taking part in the military theory debate now embrace a view of
information warfare where regime security is paramount. Among the driving
forces for this is a view of the world as a zero-sum game, where globalisation is
reducing Russian security, and where Russia lags behind Western countries in
terms of technology.