With the pervasiveness of social networks and media, digital information (health, climate, political, news articles, etc.) can be easily created and shared online by individuals, includes people and bots. This significantly changes how humans access, search and perceive information. More people are making their economic, political, health and daily life decisions by referring to online information due to its convenience and low cost. Yet, online social media has become a battleground for malicious attackers to fabricate and propagate massive amounts of disinformation, with the participation of massive groups of people online (leader-follower feedback loops). This is often referred to as the “info-demic”. The uncontrolled rapid propagation of disinformation can lead to severe consequences such as financial losses, hostile online environments, damaging people’s confidence in trusting online information, and even endangering people’s lives.